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*SS* stands for sum of squares, and is the shorthand for a variance measure. Variance is measured by subtracting the mean from each score in a distribution of scores, squaring this difference, then adding all of the differences to produce a total, or sum of the squared deviations from the mean (*SS*). Were we to take the average of these deviations we would obtain the mean sum of the squared deviations, or mean squares, or *MS*. Both these abbreviations can be found in the output from an analysis of variance.